MOLYBDENUM, TUNGSTEN AND TANTALUM FOR AVIATION & DEFENSE

As aircraft turbine engines seek greater efficiency, their designs necessitate robust materials that withstand extreme mechanical and thermal stress.

H.C. Starck provides not only molybdenum-based (TZM and Molybdenum Lanthanum Alloys) metal dies to forge the precision fan blades and rotors, but also the high performance powders to coat them providing an increased service life. Thermal-spray application of insulation layers on turbine blades optimizes engine performance, diminishes backflow, lowers fuel consumption, and enables safer engine operation. These powders are available through our AMPERIT® product line.

Precision balancing of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft is critical to reducing vibration and enhancing pilot and passenger comfort. This is best achieved with dense, high-strength materials produced for optimum weight concentration. To help balance and stabilize the control surfaces of ailerons, elevators, and rudder sections of aircraft, helicopter rotor blades, and cockpit instrumentation, H.C. Starck offers complex-shaped balance weights manufactured from tungsten heavy metal alloys.

Providing both build-to-print components and design assistance, H.C. Starck provides tungsten, molybdenum, and tantalum products to the world’s premier warhead manufacturers. In line with other aerospace products, H.C. Starck supplies defense manufacturer’s tungsten alloy balance weights for missile bodies and sensor arrays. Finally, solid rocket motors use numerous specialty compounds to enhance thrust and molybdenum-based products (Powder Metallurgy and Arc Cast Grades) to guide propulsion though vanes and nozzles.

Completing H.C. Starck’s portfolio is its best-in-class extrusion and rotary forging facility where large complex shapes are extruded from specialty metals and alloy-based systems including titanium, nickel, molybdenum, tantalum, niobium and other high-tech materials for critical aircraft structural components.

Aerospace and Defense are important markets for H.C. Starck, who has been supplying to some Aerospace and Defense applications for several decades. As the industry performance requirements continue to grow, H.C. Starck is making investments in its materials and processing technology to support these requirements.

Tungsten Alloy Products: 17.0 to 18.5 grams per cc:

K1700, K1701, K1750, K1800, K1801, K1850

HPM1700, HPM1701, HPM1750, HPM1800, HPM1801, HPM1850

Kulite® and HPM Tungsten Alloys

H.C. Starck supplies the long established Kulite® tungsten alloys from the U.S. (Table 1) and HPM tungsten alloys from Germany (Table 2).

Table 1 - Kulite® tungsten alloys (K1700 thru K1850)

Alloy Designation
K1700
K1701
K1750
K1800
K1801
K1850
Tungsten content (%) (%) 90 90 92.5
95
95
97
Density (g/cm3) 17 17
17.5
18
18
18.5

(lb/in3) 0.61 0.61
0.63 0.65
0.65 0.67
Hardness (Rc) 23 22
24
25
24
26
Ultimate Tensile Strength (psi) 125,000
110,000
125,000
125,000
110,000
120,000

(N/mm2) 860 760
860
860 760
830
Yield Strength (psi) 85,000
80,000
90,000
90,000 85,000
95,000

(N/mm2) 590 550
620 620 590 660
Elongation (% in 1 inch) 12 4
10
8
2
6
Modulus of Elasticity (psi x 106) 45 40
46
48
45
50

(kN/mm2) 310 280
320
330
310
345
Magnetic Properties
slight none
slight slight
none slight
Magnetic Permeability (µ)
>1.05 <1.05 >1.05 >1.05 <1.05 >1.05
Thermal Expansion Coefficient (x10-6/oC)(20oC-500oC)
5.1 5.4
4.9 4.8 5.0 4.8
Thermal Conductivity (cgs) .20 .23 .24 .27 .32 0.26

Electrical Conductivity

(% IACS) 11 14
12
15
16
16
MIL-T-21014(D) class 1
1
2
3
3
4
ASTM B777 class 1
1
2
3
3
4

Table 2 - HPM tungsten alloys

Typical properties of tungsten composite materials

Inspection
criterion

HPM
1700
HPM
1710
HPM
1701
HPM
1705
HPM
1750
HPM
1750
sheet
Tungsten content
%
90.0
90.0
90.0
90.0
92.5
92.5
Density
g/cm³
17.0 ± 0.2
17.0 ± 0.2
17.0 ± 0.2
17.3 ± 0.2
17.5 ± 0.2
17.6 ± 0.2
Hardness
HV 30
≤ 320
≤ 320
≤ 320
≤ 360
≤ 325
≤ 460
Tensile strength
(typical value)
MPa
850
850
670
900
840
870
Minimal yield strengt
MPa
520
520
520
520
520
520
Elongation
(typical value)
%
12
12
3
8
14
16
Young’s modulus
(average value)
GPa
320
320
300
330
340
340
Median coefficient of linear thermal expansion
20 – 100 °C
10-6/K
6.1
6.3
6.0
4.5
5.5
5.5
20 – 300 °C
10-6/K
6.2
6.5
6.2
5.1
5.7
5.7
20 – 450 °C
10-6/K
6.3
6.6
6.4
5.3
5.8
5.8
Thermal conductivity
W/mK
≥70
≥70
≥90
≥70
≥75
≥75
Electrical conductivity (average value)
%IACS
MS/m
11
6.4
11
6.4
14
8.1
13
7.5
12
6.9
12
6.9
Specific electrical resistance
(average value)
µΩm

0.16
0.16
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.15
Permeability µ

> 1.05
> 1.05
< 1.05
> 1.05
> 1.05
> 1.05


Inspection criterion

HPM 1751
HPM 1760
HPM 1800
HPM 1810
HPM 1801
HPM 1850
HPM 1850W
Tungsten content
%
92.5
92.5
95.0
95.0
95.0
97.0
97.0
Density
g/cm³
17.5 ± 0.2
17.6 ± 0.2
18.0 ± 0.2
18.0 ± 0.2
18.0 ± 0.2
18.5 ± 0.2
18.5 ± 0.2
Hardness
HV 30
≤ 325
≤ 325
≤ 332
≤ 332
≤ 332
≤ 340
≤ 340
Tensile strength
(typical value)
MPa
690
870
830
830
700
830
890
Minimal yield strengt
MPa
520
520
520
520
520
520
520
Elongation
(typical value)
%
3
16
14
14
2
12
12
Young’s modulus
(average value)
GPa
330
340
370
370
330
380
380
Median coefficient of linear thermal expansion
20 – 100 °C
10-6/K
5.7
5.5
4.9
5.2
5.4
5.1
4.8
20 – 300 °C
10-6/K
5.8
5.8
5.1
5.3
5.5
5.1
4.9
20 – 450 °C
10-6/K
5.9
5.9
5.2
5.5
5.6
5.2
5.0
Thermal conductivity
W/mK
≥85
≥75
≥80
≥80
≥85
≥75

≥80
Electrical conductivity (average value)
%IACS
MS/m
15
8.5
12
6.9
13
7.7
13
7.7
15
9.0
16
9.3
16
9.3
Specific electrical resistance
(average value)
µΩm

0.12
0.15
0.14
0.14
0.11
0.10
0.10
Permeability µ

< 1.05
> 1.05
> 1.05
> 1.05
< 1.05
> 1.05
> 1.05




Exceeds requirements of the following specifications: MIL-T-21014, ASTM B777 and AMS 7725.

Refer to Product Data Sheets:

PD-7100 Tungsten High Density Composites

Molybdenum Sheet, Plate and Foil Products:

H.C. Starck produces a wide range of molybdenum and molybdenum alloy mill products using two primary consolidation methods; vacuum arc-casting (AC) and powder metallurgy (PM). The availability of products from both of these established processes gives users many options in selecting a material to satisfy their specific application requirements. Mill products available from either process include forging billets, bar, rod, sheet, plate and foil. Refer to Product Data Sheets for Molybdenum for sizes.

Tantalum and Tantalum Alloy Products:

Refer to Product Data Sheets for Tantalum for sizes.

Customer Collaboration with Tighter Process Controls

To meet the rapidly growing demands of the aviation and defense market, H.C. Starck works closely with its customers in developing and producing custom products per customer specifications. With over 100 years of experience in manufacturing high-tech materials for various applications, H.C. Starck consistently delivers materials and products of exceptional quality.

As a vertically integrated manufacturer, we exercise tight control of all our processes from refining the raw materials to delivering high purity finished products. H.C. Starck has a unique global reach allowing for close contact and collaboration with our customers. Our experienced Research and Development department allows us to constantly be at the forefront of technological advancement and development of new products together with our partners in the industry.

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Product data sheet

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